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Biology, ecology and management of nonnative ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental plant nurseries
- RANGER, Christopher M, REDING, Michael E, SCHULTZ, Peter B., OLIVER, Jason B., FRANK, Steve D., ADDESSO, Karla M., CHONG, Juang Hong, SAMPSON, Blair J, WERLE, Christopher, GILL, Stanton, KRAUSE, Charles
- Journal of integrated pest management 2016 v.7 no.1 pp. 1-23
- Ambrosiella, Curculionidae, Fusarium, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xylosandrus germanus, adults, aesthetics, ambrosia beetles, branches, cold stress, dieback, drainage, females, flight, frost injury, fungi, host range, hosts, insect ecology, larvae, ornamental trees, pests, plant nurseries, pyrethrins, sap flow, sawdust, secondary infection, spring, trapping, tree mortality, winter
- Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with brood chambers. Hosts are infected with symbiotic Ambrosiella spp. fungi that serve as food for the larvae and adults. Trees can also become infected with secondary opportunistic pathogens, including Fusarium spp. Both X. germanus and X. crassiusculus have broad host ranges and infestations can result in sawdust “toothpicks” and sap flow associated gallery entrances, aesthetic damage to stems/trunks and branches, branch dieback, profuse basal sprouts, and tree death. Beetles efficiently locate and preferentially attack living but weakened trees, especially those physiologically stressed by flooding, inadequate drainage, frost injury, or winter injury/low temperature stress. Maintaining tree health is the foundation of a management plan. Vulnerable hosts can be protected with preventive pyrethroid applications in the spring before peak flight and attack, which are monitored using ethanol-based trapping tactics.