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Addition of Pear Ester With Sex Pheromone Enhances Disruption of Mating by Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated with Meso Dispensers

Douglas M. Light, Joseph A. Grant, Ronald P. Haff, Alan L. Knight
Environmental entomology 2017 v.46 no.2 pp. 319-327
Cydia pomonella, Juglans regia, acetic acid, adults, bait traps, canopy, dispensers, esters, females, males, mating disruption, moths, orchards, pears, pests, sex pheromones, walnuts
We evaluated the low-density application of 50 dispensers per hectare, in contrast to the traditional >800 dispensers per hectare in apple orchards, to achieve disruption of communication of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.), using several methods. These methods included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with sex pheromone (Ph) or codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, or a combination of codlemone, pear ester (PE), ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and acetic acid, and by examining the mating status of females. These data were collected from 2011-2014 in nontreated plots and in similar plots treated with Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone (Ph Meso) or codlemone and PE (Ph + PE Meso). Male moth captures in both the Ph and combination lure traps reduced by 88-96% and 72 to 77%, respectively, compared with traps in the nontreated plots. A significantly higher proportion of female moths were nonmated in plots treated with Ph + PE Meso dispensers (33%) than in plots treated with Ph Meso (18-26%), or left nontreated (13%). In addition, significantly fewer multiple-mated females were trapped in the Ph + PE Meso-treated plots (6%) than in either Ph Meso-treated (13-18%) or nontreated plots (23%). These data suggest that the addition of PE can effectively improve Ph-based disruption of C. pomonella in walnut orchards. In addition, these data suggest that the use of low-density hand-applied dispensers can be an effective and lower-cost approach to manage this pest in the large canopy presented by walnut orchards.