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Relationships between the genes expressed in the mesenteric adipose tissue of beef cattle and feed intake and gain

A. K. Lindholm‐Perry, H. C. Cunningham, L. A. Kuehn, J. L. Vallet, J. W. Keele, A. P. Foote, K. M. Cammack, H. C. Freetly
Animal genetics 2017 v.48 no.4 pp. 386-394
adipose tissue, beef cattle, body weight changes, feed intake, finishing, gene expression, gene expression regulation, gene ontology, genes, glycerol, glycerol kinase, immune response, messenger RNA, oxidative stress, proteolysis, signal transduction, steers, superoxide anion, transcription (genetics), translation (genetics), visceral fat
Mesenteric fat, a depot within the visceral fat, accumulates in cattle during maturation and finishing and may be a potential source of production inefficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genes expressed in the mesenteric fat of steers were associated with body weight gain and feed intake. Sixteen steers chosen by their rank of distance from the bivariate mean for gain and feed intake were used for this study. Mesenteric fat was obtained and evaluated for differences in gene expression. A total of 1831 genes were identified as differentially expressed among steers with variation in feed intake and gain. Many of these genes were involved with metabolic processes such as proteolysis, transcription and translation. In addition, the Gene Ontology annotations including transport and localization were both over‐represented among the differentially expressed genes. Pathway analysis was also performed on the differentially expressed genes. The superoxide radical degradation pathway was identified as over‐represented based on the differential expression of the genes GPX7, SOD2 and TYRP1, suggesting a potential role for oxidative stress or inflammatory pathways among low gain–high intake animals. GPX7 and SOD2 were in lower transcript abundance, and TYRP1 was higher in transcript abundance among the low gain–high feed intake animals. The retinoate biosynthesis pathway was also enriched due to the differential expression of the genes AKR1C3, ALDH8A1, RDH8, RDH13 and SDR9C7. These genes were all more highly expressed in the low gain–high intake animals. The glycerol degradation and granzyme A signaling pathways were both associated with gain. Three glycerol kinase genes and the GZMA gene were differentially expressed among high vs. low gain animals. Mesenteric fat is a metabolically active tissue, and in this study, genes involved in proteolysis, transcription, translation, transport immune function, glycerol degradation and oxidative stress were differentially expressed among beef steers with variation in body weight gain and feed intake.