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Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication
- Raz Avni, Moran Nave, Omer Barad, Kobi Baruch, Sven O. Twardziok, Heidrun Gundlach, Iago Hale, Martin Mascher, Manuel Spannagl, Krystalee Wiebe, Katherine W. Jordan, Guy Golan, Jasline Deek, Batsheva Ben-Zvi, Gil Ben-Zvi, Axel Himmelbach, Ron P. MacLachlan, Andrew G. Sharpe, Allan Fritz, Roi Ben-David, Hikmet Budak, Tzion Fahima, Abraham Korol, Justin D. Faris, Alvaro Hernandez, Mark A. Mikel, Avraham A. Levy, Brian Steffenson, Marco Maccaferri, Luigi Cattivelli, Primetta Faccioli, Aldo Ceriotti, Khalil Kashkush, Mohammad Pourkheirandish, Takao Komatsuda, Tamar Eilam, Hanan Sela, Amir Sharon, Nir Ohad, Daniel A Chamovitz, Klaus F. X. Mayer, Nils Stein, Gil Ronen, Zvi Peleg, Curtis J. Pozniak, Eduard D. Akhunov, Assaf Distelfeld, Roberto Tuberosa
- Science 2017 v.357 no.6346 pp. 93-97
- Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides, allopolyploidy, chromosomes, crops, domestication, evolution, genes, genetic engineering, genetic variation, mutation, tetraploidy, wheat
- Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties.