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Germplasm sources of protective glandular leaf trichomes of hop (Humulus lupulus)

Naraine, Steve G. U., Small, Ernest
Genetic resources and crop evolution 2017 v.64 no.7 pp. 1491-1497
Humulus lupulus, breeding, cultivars, evolution, germplasm, hops, insects, leaves, trichomes, Asia, Europe, North America
We report here that small but numerous foliar glands are present near the base of the abaxial leaf blades of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) at about 2.6 times the density found in the more distal regions, and this concentration of glands appear to protect the basal region from damage by insects. Distinctive wild taxa of H. lupulus are native to distinctive regions of the north temperate world. The much higher presence of protective glands in the three native North American Humulus taxonomic varieties in comparison with the varieties native to Europe and Asia suggests specialized leaf feeders in North America have been responsible for the evolution of greater gland density. Commercial domesticated hop cultivars trace most of their germplasm to the European hop (H. lupulus var. lupulus), which possesses a much lower concentration of leaf glands than the native hops of all other regions of the world, and therefore is likely relatively susceptible to damage. We suggest that breeding for increased density of protective foliage glands may be a non-chemical way of alleviating foliar feeding damage in cultivated hops.