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Excretory-secretory product of third-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae induces apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Viseshakul, Nareerat, Dechkhajorn, Wilanee, Benjathummarak, Surachet, Nuamtanong, Supaporn, Maneerat, Yaowapa
Parasitology research 2017 v.116 no.10 pp. 2783-2794
Gnathostoma, apoptosis, excretory-secretory products, flow cytometry, gnathostomiasis, humans, immune evasion, larvae, models, mononuclear leukocytes, pathogenesis, polymerase chain reaction, propidium, regulator genes, staining, zoonoses
Human gnathostomiasis caused by third-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae (G. spinigerum L3) is an important zoonotic disease in tropical areas of the world. The excretory-secretory products (ES) that are excreted by infective larva play a significant role in host immune evasion and tissue destruction. To investigate the poorly understood mechanisms of G. spinigerum L3 pathogenesis, we focused on the potential effect of ES on inducing apoptosis in human immune cells by using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a model. Early and late apoptosis of PBMCs were assessed following the exposure of these cells to G. spinigerum L3 ES (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml) for 6–48 h. The apoptotic cells were identified by flow cytometric staining of PBMC with FITC-annexin V and propidium iodide. The expression of regulatory genes related to apoptosis mechanisms in ES-treated PBMCs was investigated using a Human Apoptosis RT² Profiler™ PCR Array. The results showed significant levels of early phase apoptosis at 18 h and of late phase apoptosis at 24 h. We speculate that this apoptosis in PBMCs occurs via the extrinsic pathway. Apoptosis in the ES-induced PBMCs was observed as quickly as 90 min after exposure, and the highest effect was observed at 18–24 h. Furthermore, ES can trigger apoptosis lasting for 48 h. Our findings expand the understanding of one of the mechanisms involved, immune-evasive strategy mechanism used by G. spinigerum larvae during human gnathostomiasis.