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Effects of polyphenol‐rich plant products from grape or hop as feed supplements on the expression of inflammatory, antioxidative, cytoprotective and endoplasmic reticulum stress‐related genes and the antioxidative status in the liver of piglets
- Gessner, D. K., Bonarius, M., Most, E., Fiesel, A., Eder, K.
- Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2017 v.101 no.5 pp. e185
- anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, endoplasmic reticulum, feed conversion, feed supplements, gene expression, genes, grape seeds, grapes, hops, inflammation, liver, messenger RNA, piglets, polyphenols, proteins, small intestine, swine feeding, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, tocopherols, unfolded protein response, xenobiotics
- Recent studies have shown that supplementation of plant products rich in polyphenols exerts anti‐inflammatory effects in the small intestine and improves feed conversion in piglets. This study aimed to investigate whether dietary polyphenols have also anti‐inflammatory and cytoprotective effects in the liver of piglets. For this end, relative mRNA concentrations of eight genes involved in proinflammatory pathways, eight genes involved in the antioxidative and cytoprotective system, six genes of phase I and phase II metabolism and 15 genes of the unfolded protein response (triggered by stress of the endoplasmic reticulum) in the liver of pigs fed diets supplemented with either 1% of grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GME) or 1% spent hops (SH) as sources of polyphenols were determined. Relative mRNA concentrations of almost all these genes, with few exceptions, in the liver of pigs supplemented with GME or SH did not differ from those in the liver of control piglets. Gene expression data were validated by consideration of concentrations of some selected proteins of these pathways which also did not differ between piglets supplemented with GME or SH and control piglets. Moreover, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances and tocopherols as well as the total antioxidant capacity in liver and plasma did not differ between pigs supplemented with either GME or SH and control piglets. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GME or SH as sources of polyphenols does not influence hepatic pathways linked to inflammation, the antioxidant and cytoprotective system, stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and the xenobiotic system in healthy piglets.