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Development of β-Carotene-Loaded Organogel-Based Nanoemulsion with Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Bioaccessibility

Fan, Yuting, Gao, Luyu, Yi, Jiang, Zhang, Yuzhu, Yokoyama, Wallace
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.30 pp. 6188-6194
beta-carotene, bioactive compounds, bioavailability, corn oil, emulsifiers, encapsulation, endocytosis, human health, lipolysis, nanoemulsions, pharmacokinetics, polysorbates, water solubility
β-Carotene (BC), a naturally occurring lipophilic carotenoid, is beneficial for human health. However, its water solubility and bioavailability are low. In this study, organogel-based nanoemulsion was successfully prepared to improve the loading amount, solubility, and bioavailability of BC. Corn oil was selected as the oil phase for the organogel as a result of the greatest release amount of BC. Tween 20 was optimized as the emulsifier based on the highest extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. The nanoemulsion was a better alternative than the organogel according to both the extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. Cellular uptake of BC was significantly improved through organogel-based nanoemulsion compared to BC suspension. Caveolae-/lipid-raft-mediated route was the main endocytosis pathway. Pharmacokinetic results confirmed that the in vivo bioavailability of BC in nanoemulsion was 11.5-fold higher than that of BC oil. The information obtained suggested that organogel-based nanoemulsion may be an effective encapsulation system for delivery of insoluble and indigestible bioactive compounds.