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Development of β-Carotene-Loaded Organogel-Based Nanoemulsion with Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Bioaccessibility
- Fan, Yuting, Gao, Luyu, Yi, Jiang, Zhang, Yuzhu, Yokoyama, Wallace
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.30 pp. 6188-6194
- beta-carotene, bioactive compounds, bioavailability, corn oil, emulsifiers, encapsulation, endocytosis, human health, lipolysis, nanoemulsions, pharmacokinetics, polysorbates, water solubility
- β-Carotene (BC), a naturally occurring lipophilic carotenoid, is beneficial for human health. However, its water solubility and bioavailability are low. In this study, organogel-based nanoemulsion was successfully prepared to improve the loading amount, solubility, and bioavailability of BC. Corn oil was selected as the oil phase for the organogel as a result of the greatest release amount of BC. Tween 20 was optimized as the emulsifier based on the highest extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. The nanoemulsion was a better alternative than the organogel according to both the extent of lipolysis and BC bioaccessibility. Cellular uptake of BC was significantly improved through organogel-based nanoemulsion compared to BC suspension. Caveolae-/lipid-raft-mediated route was the main endocytosis pathway. Pharmacokinetic results confirmed that the in vivo bioavailability of BC in nanoemulsion was 11.5-fold higher than that of BC oil. The information obtained suggested that organogel-based nanoemulsion may be an effective encapsulation system for delivery of insoluble and indigestible bioactive compounds.