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Rumen microbiota and dietary fat: a mutual shaping

Enjalbert, F., Combes, S., Zened, A., Meynadier, A.
Journal of applied microbiology 2017 v.123 no.4 pp. 782-797
Butyrivibrio, Protozoa, bacteria, biohydrogenation, dietary fat, farms, fatty acid composition, fatty acids, lipid content, lipolysis, meat, microbial growth, milk, rumen, rumen microorganisms, ruminants
Although fat content in usual ruminant diets is very low, fat supplements can be given to farm ruminants to modulate rumen activity or the fatty acid (FA) profile of meat and milk. Unsaturated FAs, which are dominant in common fat sources for ruminants, have negative effects on microbial growth, especially protozoa and fibrolytic bacteria. In turn, the rumen microbiota detoxifies unsaturated FAs (UFAs) through a biohydrogenation (BH) process, transforming dietary UFAs with cis geometrical double‐bonds into mainly trans UFAs and, finally, into saturated FAs. Culture studies have provided a large amount of data regarding bacterial species and strains that are affected by UFAs or involved in lipolysis or BH, with a major focus on the Butyrivibrio genus. More recent data using molecular approaches to rumen microbiota extend and challenge these data, but further research will be necessary to improve our understanding of fat and rumen microbiota interactions.