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Genotyping-by-sequencing highlights original diversity patterns within a European collection of 1191 maize flint lines, as compared to the maize USDA genebank

Gouesnard, Brigitte, Negro, Sandra, Laffray, Amélie, Glaubitz, Jeff, Melchinger, Albrecht, Revilla, Pedro, Moreno-Gonzalez, Jesus, Madur, Delphine, Combes, Valérie, Tollon-Cordet, Christine, Laborde, Jacques, Kermarrec, Dominique, Bauland, Cyril, Moreau, Laurence, Charcosset, Alain, Nicolas, Stéphane
Theoretical and applied genetics 2017 v.130 no.10 pp. 2165-2189
USDA, agronomic traits, breeding programs, color, cost effectiveness, crossing, flint corn, flowering date, genotyping by sequencing, germplasm, inbred lines, landraces, popcorn, population structure, seeds, single nucleotide polymorphism, temporal variation, Argentina, Italy
KEY MESSAGE : Genotyping by sequencing is suitable for analysis of global diversity in maize. We showed the distinctiveness of flint maize inbred lines of interest to enrich the diversity of breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a highly cost-effective procedure that permits the analysis of large collections of inbred lines. We used it to characterize diversity in 1191 maize flint inbred lines from the INRA collection, the European Cornfed association panel, and lines recently derived from landraces. We analyzed the properties of GBS data obtained with different imputation methods, through comparison with a 50 K SNP array. We identified seven ancestral groups within the Flint collection (dent, Northern flint, Italy, Pyrenees–Galicia, Argentina, Lacaune, Popcorn) in agreement with breeding knowledge. Analysis highlighted many crosses between different origins and the improvement of flint germplasm with dent germplasm. We performed association studies on different agronomic traits, revealing SNPs associated with cob color, kernel color, and male flowering time variation. We compared the diversity of both our collection and the USDA collection which has been previously analyzed by GBS. The population structure of the 4001 inbred lines confirmed the influence of the historical inbred lines (B73, A632, Oh43, Mo17, W182E, PH207, and Wf9) within the dent group. It showed distinctly different tropical and popcorn groups, a sweet-Northern flint group and a flint group sub-structured in Italian and European flint (Pyrenees–Galicia and Lacaune) groups. Interestingly, we identified several selective sweeps between dent, flint, and tropical inbred lines that co-localized with SNPs associated with flowering time variation. The joint analysis of collections by GBS offers opportunities for a global diversity analysis of maize inbred lines.