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Structural characteristics of camel-bone gelatin by demineralization and extraction

AL-Kahtani, Hassan A., Jaswir, Irwandi, Ismail, Elsayed A., Ahmed, Mohammed Asif, Monsur Hammed, Ademola, Olorunnisola, Saeed, Octavianti, Fitri
International journal of food properties 2017 v.20 no.11 pp. 2559-2568
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, acidification, calcium, camels, collagen, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, gelatin, hydrochloric acid, models, moieties, pH, scanning electron microscopes, soaking, surface roughness, temperature
Camel bone was demineralized through HCl acidulation process at different concentrations (0.0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 6.0%) over 1–5 days. The level of demineralization was acid concentration and soaking time dependent. Highest demineralization (62.0%) was recorded in bone sample treated with 6.0% dilute acid for 5 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) elemental analysis revealed reduction in Ca and increase in N and H, while O remains unaffected. Particulate characteristics by scanning electron microscope showed an increased surface roughness of bone after demineralization. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of ossein depicted the presence of functional group similar to that of bone protein (collagen). Statistical optimization by central composite design (CCD) revealed a significant quadratic model for optimum values of extraction temperature, pH, and extraction time. The highest gelatin yield from camel bone was 23.66% at optimum extraction condition (71.87°C, pH 5.26, and 2.58 h) and the bloom was 205.74 g. Camel bone is suitable for production of gelatin with good potentials in food and nonfood applications.