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Physiological Effects of Balanced Anesthesia during Dental Procedures in Brown Bears (Ursus Arctos)
- Yanev Aminkov, Bogdan, Hristov Mehandzhiyski, Nikolay, Zlatozarova Zlateva-Panayotova, Nadya, Bogdanov Aminkov, Konstantin, Marinov Marinov, Georgi
- Acta veterinaria 2017 v.67 no.3 pp. 331-339
- Ursus arctos, anesthesia, animals, butorphanol, heart rate, hydrochloric acid, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, ketamine, medetomidine, oxygen, respiratory rate, surgery, temperature, tiletamine, Bulgaria, France
- The goal of the present study was to monitor the physiological effects of a standardized balanced anesthetic protocol in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during routine dental procedures. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) were evaluated in twelve brown bears, anesthetized with a balanced drug combination for 90 minutes during dental procedures. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of a combined intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) 1mg/kg, medetomidine HCl 0.003mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg of butorphanol was administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0.8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0.04 at mg/kg/min. Rectal temperature decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas: heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were stable with no significant changes in these parameters for the duration of anesthesia. In conclusion, this anesthetic drug combination is suitable for oral surgery of medium duration in brown bears.