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One-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite Nanostructures with Tunable Length for Efficient Stem Cell Differentiation Regulation

Ma, Baojin, Zhang, Shan, Liu, Feng, Duan, Jiazhi, Wang, Shicai, Han, Jing, Sang, Yuanhua, Yu, Xiaoqiang, Li, Dong, Tang, Wei, Ge, Shaohua, Liu, Hong
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2017 v.9 no.39 pp. 33717-33727
alcohols, biocompatible materials, bone formation, bones, cell differentiation, growth factors, humans, hydroxyapatite, models, nanorods, nanowires, oleic acid, osteoblasts, stem cells, tissue engineering
It is well-accepted that most osteogenic differentiation processes do need growth factors assistance to improve efficiency. As a material cue, hydroxyapatite (HAp) can promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells only in a way. Up to now, rare work related to the relationship between HAp nanostructures and stem cells in osteogenic differentiation process without the assistance of growth factors has been reported. In this study, one-dimensional (1D) HAp nanostructures with tunable length were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted solvothermal method by adjusting the alcohol/water ratio (η). The morphology of 1D HAp nanostructures can be changed from long nanowires into nanorods with the η value change. Different substrates constructed by 1D HAp nanostructures were prepared to investigate the effect of morphology of nanostructured HAp on stem cell fate without any growth factors or differentiation induce media. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), a kind of promising stem cell for autologous stem cell tissue engineering, were used as the stem cell model. The experiments prove that HAp morphology can determine the performance of hADSCs cultured on different substrates. Substrate constructed by HAp nanorods (100 nm) is of little benefit to osteogenic differentiations. Substrate constructed on HAp long nanowires (50 μm) causes growth and spread inhibition of hADSCs, which even causes most cells death after 7 days of culture. However, substrate constructed by HAp short nanowires (5 μm) can destine the hADSCs differentiation to osteoblasts efficiently in normal medium (after 3 weeks) without any growth factors. It is surprise that hADSCs have changed to polyhedral morphology and exhibited the tendency to osteogenic differentiation after only 24 h culture. Hydroxyapatite nanostructures mediated stem cell osteogenic differentiation excluding growth factors provides a powerful cue to design biomaterials with special nanostructures, and helps to elucidate the interaction of stem cell and biomaterials nanostructures. The results from this study are promising for application in bone tissue engineering.