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4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors: From Chemical Biology to Agrochemicals
- Ndikuryayo, Ferdinand, Moosavi, Behrooz, Yang, Wen-Chao, Yang, Guang-Fu
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.39 pp. 8523-8537
- 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, agrochemicals, application rate, biotypes, engineering, herbicides, photosynthesis, transgenic plants, weed control
- The development of new herbicides is receiving considerable attention to control weed biotypes resistant to current herbicides. Consequently, new enzymes are always desired as targets for herbicide discovery. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme engaged in photosynthetic activity and catalyzes the transformation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (HPPA) into homogentisic acid (HGA). HPPD inhibitors constitute a promising area of discovery and development of innovative herbicides with some advantages, including excellent crop selectivity, low application rates, and broad-spectrum weed control. HPPD inhibitors have been investigated for agrochemical interests, and some of them have already been commercialized as herbicides. In this review, we mainly focus on the chemical biology of HPPD, discovery of new potential inhibitors, and strategies for engineering transgenic crops resistant to current HPPD-inhibiting herbicides. The conclusion raises some relevant gaps for future research directions.