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Acute and chronic toxic effects of fluoxastrobin on zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Zhang, Cheng, Zhou, Tongtong, Wang, Jun, Zhang, Shuai, Zhu, Lusheng, Du, Zhongkun, Wang, Jinhua
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.610-611 pp. 769-775
DNA damage, Danio rerio, antioxidants, aquatic environment, azoxystrobin, catalase, chronic toxicity, confidence interval, fluoxastrobin, glutathione transferase, lethal concentration 50, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, pyraclostrobin, superoxide dismutase
Fluoxastrobin is a new strobilurin fungicide, similar to azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. Before the wide application of fluoxastrobin, the present study was performed to assay the acute and chronic toxicity of fluoxastrobin on zebrafish (Danio rerio). The 96-hour median lethal concentration (96h LC50) after initiation of zebrafish exposure to fluoxastrobin was 0.51mg/L with a 95% confidence interval of 0.45 to 0.57mg/L, indicating that fluoxastrobin was highly toxic to zebrafish. As endpoints, we assayed the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the degree of DNA damage at three different doses, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1mg/L on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The antioxidant enzymes partially ameliorated the ROS induced by fluoxastrobin t and were in turn inhibited by excess ROS, especially at 0.1mg/L. Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were stimulated by ROS. The fluoxastrobin contents of the tested solutions were also determined; at the fluoxastrobin doses of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1mg/L, the contents on day 28 were 3.9, 5.0, and 0.64% greater than those on day 0. Thus, fluoxastrobin was relatively stable in an aquatic environment. In addition, the present study provided more information regarding the toxic effects of fluoxastrobin and the scientific methods for selection and evaluation of fungicides in the future.