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Green modification of outer selective P84 nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes for cadmium removal
- Gao, Jie, Sun, Shi-Peng, Zhu, Wen-Ping, Chung, Tai-Shung
- Journal of membrane science 2016 v.499 pp. 361-369
- alkanes, artificial membranes, cadmium, cadmium chloride, epichlorohydrins, glutaraldehyde, magnesium sulfate, manufacturing, nanofiltration, organochlorine compounds, permeability, polyethyleneimine, polymerization, porosity, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, solvents, sustainable manufacturing, temperature
- Outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes are normally made from interfacial polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC). However, the removal of excess MPD solution and the large consumption of alkane solvents are their technical bottlenecks. In this study, green methods to prepare the outer selective TFC hollow fiber membranes were explored by firstly modifying the membrane substrate with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and then by water soluble small molecules such as glutaraldehyde (GA) and epichlorohydrin (ECH). Using P84 polyimide as the substrate, not only do these modifications decrease substrate's pore size, but also vary surface charge by making the membranes less positively charged. As a result, the resultant membranes have higher rejections against salts such as Na2SO4, NaCl and MgSO4. The PEI and then GA modified membrane has the best separation performance with a NaCl rejection over 90% and a pure water permeability (PWP) of 1.74±0.01Lm⁻²bar⁻¹h⁻¹. It also shows an impressive rejection to CdCl2 (94%) during long-term stability tests. The CdCl2 rejection remains higher than 90% at operating temperatures from 5 to 60°C. This study may provide useful insights for green manufacturing of outer-selective nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes.