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The impacts of temperature, alcoholic degree and amino acids content on biogenic amines and their precursor amino acids content in red wine
- Lorenzo, C., Bordiga, M., Pérez-Álvarez, E.P., Travaglia, F., Arlorio, M., Salinas, M.R., Coïsson, J.D., Garde-Cerdán, T.
- Food research international 2017 v.99 pp. 328-335
- alcoholic fermentation, amino acids, histamine, malolactic fermentation, red wines, temperature, tryptamine, tyramine, winemaking
- The aim was to study how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids supplementation are able to influence the content of tyramine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and their precursor amino acids in winemaking process. Biogenic amines and amino acids were quantified at the beginning, middle and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In general, samples produced with amino acid supplementation did not show the highest concentrations of biogenic amines, except for histamine, which content increased with the addition of the four amino acids. The synthesis of tyramine was mainly affected by the temperature and alcoholic degree, the formation of phenylethylamine was largely influenced by alcoholic degree, and tryptamine synthesis principally depended on temperature. Interestingly, there was interaction between these three factors for the biogenic amines studied. In conclusion, winemaking conditions should be established depending on the biogenic amine which synthesis is required to be controlled.