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Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-kB-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils

Kogut, Michael H., He, Haiqi, Genovese, Kenneth J.
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2012 v.145 no.1-2 pp. 159
DNA, agonists, bacteria, bacterial infections, birds, caffeic acid, cytoplasmic granules, enzyme activity, flagellin, heterophils, immunity, inflammation, lipoproteins, neutrophils, prostaglandins, receptors
Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) has concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine and chemokine expression. Virtually no studies have been described on the role of lipid mediators, leukotrienes and prostaglandins, as effectors of the avian inflammatory response. We have previously shown that flagellin (FLG), the bacterial lipoprotein mimic palmitoly-3-cysteine–serine–lysine-4 (PAM), and unmethylated CpG motifs of bacteria DNA (CpG) are all potent activators of the avian innate immune system. In the present studies, we hypothesized that FLG, PAM, and CpG are also capable of eliciting the production of these lipid mediators of inflammation by avian heterophils. Compared to non-stimulated control heterophils, all three TLR agonists were potent inducers (3–5-fold increase) of a rapid production (30 min) of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) followed by a later release (60–120 min) of prostaglandin (PGE2) by the heterophils. LTB4 and PGE2 production were derived from lipoxygenase-5 (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activities, respectively, as the selective 5-LO (caffeic acid) and COX-2 (NS-398) inhibitors eliminated LTB4 and PGE2 production from the MAMP-stimulated heterophils. These results demonstrate that both the lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase pathways are operational in avian heterophils in response to bacterial MAMPs. Treatment of heterophils with either FLG, PAM, or CpG also induced a significant increase in DNA binding by NF-B family members’ p50, c-Rel, and RelB. Additionally, the production of LTB4 and PGE2 were inhibited following treatment of heterophils with the specific pharmacologic inhibitor of NF-B (Bay 11–7086), thus suggesting that TLR pathway activation of NF-B controls LTB4 and PGE2 production. This the first report of the production of lipid mediators of inflammation by avian heterophils in response to PAMPs. Since FLG, lipoproteins, and bacterial CpG DNA are abundant during bacterial infections, these data support their role in the inflammatory response mediated by avian heterophils.