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Capillary moving-boundary isotachophoresis with electrospray ionization mass-spectrometric detection and hydrogen ion used as essential terminator: Methodology for sensitive analysis of hydroxyderivatives of s-triazine herbicides in waters A

Malá, Zdena, Gebauer, Petr
Journal of chromatography 2017 v.1518 pp. 97-103
acetic acid, ammonium, chromatography, detection limit, drinking, electrolytes, electrophoresis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, equations, herbicides, prediction, protons, river water
Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) is an electrophoretic technique offering high sensitivity due to permanent stacking of the migrating analytes. Its combination with electrospray-ionization mass-spectrometric (ESI–MS) detection is limited by the narrow spectrum of ESI-compatible components but can be compensated by experienced system architecture. This work describes a methodology for sensitive analysis of hydroxyderivatives of s-triazine herbicides, based on implementation of the concepts of moving-boundary isotachophoresis and of H+ as essential terminating component into cationic ITP with ESI–MS detection. Theoretical description of such kind of system is given and equations for zone-related boundary mobilities are derived, resulting in a much more general definition of the effective mobility of the terminating H+ zone than used so far. Explicit equations allowing direct calculation for selected simple systems are derived. The presented theory allows prediction of stacking properties of particular systems and easy selection of suitable electrolyte setups. A simple ESI-compatible system composed of acetic acid and ammonium with H+ and ammonium as a mixed terminator was selected for the analysis of 2-hydroxyatrazine and 2-hydroxyterbutylazine, degradation products of s-triazine herbicides. The proposed method was tested with direct injection without any sample pretreatment and provided excellent linearity and high sensitivity with limits of detection below 100ng/L (0.5nM). Example analyses of unspiked and spiked drinking and river water are shown.