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Effects of monensin on glucose metabolism in transition dairy cows

Markantonatos, X., Varga, G.A.
Journal of dairy science 2017 v.100 no.11 pp. 9020-9035
Holstein, blood glucose, computer software, dairy cows, diet, energy, experimental design, gluconeogenesis, glucose, jugular vein, models, monensin, oxidation, parturition, propionic acid, rumen, stable isotopes, tissues
Eight multiparous periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannula were used in a split plot design to evaluate the effects of monensin on plasma glucose metabolism. Diets were top-dressed daily with 0 mg/cow of monensin (control) or 300 mg/cow of monensin (MON) both pre- and postpartum. Plasma glucose kinetic parameters on d −13 ± 2.0 and 19 ± 1.6 relative to parturition were determined by using stable isotopes. Na-1-13C3-Propionate (labeled propionate) was infused into the rumen to measure glucose synthesis originating from ruminal propionate, and U-13C-glucose (labeled glucose) was injected into the jugular vein to determine total glucose kinetics. A sampling period of 480 min following labeled glucose injection was implemented. A compartmental analysis was employed to determine steady state glucose kinetic parameters. To develop a steady state glucose model, the Windows version of SAAM software (WinSAAM) was used. A 4-compartment model was adequate to comprehensively describe plasma glucose metabolism. The main model compartments consisted of propionate and plasma glucose. The time frame of the 480-min sampling period post-tracer glucose infusion allowed accurate quantification of glucose metabolism. The model estimated that glucose input from sources other than ruminal propionate decreased with MON, from 2.26 to 1.09 g/min postpartum. Gluconeogenesis, expressed as the propionate contribution to the plasma glucose pool, increased in cows fed MON (22 vs. 31%), whereas glucose oxidation, expressed as the glucose disposal rate, significantly decreased (1.67 vs. 0.92 g/min). In conclusion, MON may improve the energy status of transition cows by (1) improving the efficiency of propionate to produce glucose and (2) decreasing glucose oxidation in body tissues.