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Monitoring attack and flight activity of Xylosandrus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae); the influence of temperature on activity
- Reding, Michael E., Ranger, Christopher M., Oliver, Jason B., Schultz, Peter B.
- Journal of economic entomology 2013 v.106 no.4 pp. 1780
- Acer platanoides, Cornus mas, Curculionidae, Forsythia, Xylosandrus, agricultural forecasts, ambrosia beetles, application timing, bait traps, boring insects, decision making, flight, flowering, growers, insect traps, insecticides, monitoring, ornamental woody plants, pesticide application, phenology, plant nurseries, plant pests, temperature
- Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We evaluated the reliability of ethanol-baited bottle-traps for monitoring emergence of overwintered Xylosandrus spp. in ornamental nurseries. Detection of initial flight activity by traps was compared with initial attacks on ethanol-injected trap-trees. To develop tools for forecasting X. germanus activity, the relationships between temperature and the attack and flight activity were examined, and the bloom sequence of ornamental plants was examined as phenological indicators of X. germanus emergence in Ohio. Captures of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) coincided with attacks on trap-trees on seven of eight occasions over two years in four nurseries. There was a strong relationship between maximum daily temperatures 20°C and 21°C and X. germanus attack and flight activity. No attack or flight activity were detected in a monitoring period unless there was one or two days, respectively, above 20°C. Emergence of X. germanus always began after and within 6 days of full bloom on Cornelian cherry dogwood, and usually after and within 4 days of first bloom on Norway maple and full bloom on border forsythia. The traps or phenological indicators can be used by growers to monitor emergence of X. germanus to time their initial protective sprays. The relationship between X. germanus activity and temperature can be used by growers to make decisions on timing subsequent treatments.