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Bioprinting and its applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

Aljohani, Waeljumah, Ullah, Muhammad Wajid, Zhang, Xianglin, Yang, Guang
International journal of biological macromolecules 2017
adhesion, alginates, biocompatibility, biocompatible materials, biodegradability, bioprinting, blood vessels, cartilage, cell viability, cellulose, chitosan, crosslinking, developmental stages, extracellular matrix, gelatin, medicine, polymers, thermal properties, tissue engineering
Bioprinting of three-dimensional constructs mimicking natural-like extracellular matrix has revolutionized biomedical technology. Bioprinting technology circumvents various discrepancies associated with current tissue engineering strategies by providing an automated and advanced platform to fabricate various biomaterials through precise deposition of cells and polymers in a premeditated fashion. However, few obstacles associated with development of 3D scaffolds including varied properties of polymers used and viability, controlled distribution, and vascularization, etc. of cells hinder bioprinting of complex structures. Therefore, extensive efforts have been made to explore the potential of various natural polymers (e.g. cellulose, gelatin, alginate, and chitosan, etc.) and synthetic polymers in bioprinting by tuning their printability and cross-linking features, mechanical and thermal properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, etc. This review describes the potential of these polymers to support adhesion and proliferation of viable cells to bioprint cell laden constructs, bone, cartilage, skin, and neural tissues, and blood vessels, etc. for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicines. Further, it describes various challenges associated with current bioprinting technology and suggests possible solutions. Although at early stage of development, the potential benefits of bioprinting technology are quite clear and expected to open new gateways in biomedical, pharmaceutics and several other fields in near future.