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Arsenic accumulation in Brassicaceae seedlings and its effects on growth and plant anatomy

de Freitas-Silva, Larisse, de Araújo, Talita Oliveira, da Silva, Luzimar Campos, de Oliveira, Juraci Alves, de Araujo, João Marcos
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016 v.124 pp. 1-9
Brassica juncea, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea var. italica, Raphanus sativus, arsenic, culture media, cylinders, hypertrophy, leaf blade, plasmolysis, protoplasts, roots, seedlings, shoots, sodium arsenate, tissues
We wished to evaluate the effects of arsenic on the morphology and anatomy of Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus, Brassica juncea, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Brassica oleracea var. italica. Seeds were subjected to concentrations 0µM, 250µM, 350µM and 450µM arsenic in the form of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O) during 12 days. All species accumulated more arsenic in the roots than in the shoots, except for B. oleracea var. capitata. There was no difference of translocation factor between species and treatments. Growth decrease was observed in roots of B. oleracea and R. sativus, and in shoots of R. sativus and B. oleracea var. italica. All species presented anatomical alterations in the roots, such as: cell hypertrophy, protoplast retraction, cellular plasmolysis, and necrotic regions. B. juncea presented collapse and hypertrophy of cells from the leaf blade tissues. Quantitative anatomical analyses performed on the root and leaves of B. oleracea and B. juncea revealed that arsenic interfered on the root vascular cylinder diameter and on height of epidermal cells of the adaxial leaf surface of both species. We concluded that arsenic was absorbed from the culture medium and induced alterations both on root and shoot growth of the seedlings. Retention of arsenic within the root was responsible for major damage in this organ.