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General stress, detoxification pathways, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluated in Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to human pharmaceuticals

Aguirre-Martínez, Gabriela V., DelValls, T. Angel, Martín-Díaz, M. Laura
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016 v.124 pp. 18-31
DNA damage, Ruditapes philippinarum, acetylcholinesterase, bioassays, biomarkers, caffeine, clams, environmental assessment, genotoxicity, hemolymph, humans, ibuprofen, lipid peroxidation, metabolism, models, mutagens, neurotoxicity, novobiocin, oxidative stress, peroxidase, risk assessment process, tissues
A battery of biomarkers was evaluated on Ruditapes philippinarum exposed during 14 days to caffeine, ibuprofen, carbamazepine and novobiocin (0.1, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 50µgL−1). The battery included general stress (lysosomal membrane stability – LMS) analysed in the hemolymph, and biochemical biomarkers analysed in digestive gland tissues including: biomarkers of phase I (etoxyresorufin O-deethylase – EROD, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase – DBF), phase II (gluthathione-S-transferase – GST), oxidative stress (gluthathione reductase – GR, gluthathione peroxidase – GPX, lipid peroxidation – LPO), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity – AChE), and genotoxicity (DNA damage). Pharmaceuticals tested induced the sublethal responses (even at the environmental range 0.1µgL−1). At this low concentration; caffeine, ibuprofen and carbamazepine decreased the LMS significantly compared with controls (p<0.05). The four compounds induced significantly the detoxification metabolism and oxidative stress (p<0.05). Neurotoxicity was noticed in clams exposed to caffeine and carbamazepine (p<0.05). Ibuprofen, carbamazepine and novobiocin produced genotoxic effects (p<0.05). Results from this research validate the use of biomarkers when assessing the effects of pharmaceuticals within a marine environmental risk assessment framework, using as a laboratory bioassay model the species R. philippinarum.