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Biologically derived fertilizer: A multifaceted bio-tool in methane mitigation

Singh, Jay Shankar, Strong, P.J.
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016 v.124 pp. 267-276
agricultural productivity, ammonia, beneficial microorganisms, biofertilizers, crop yield, energy, environmental management, methane, methane production, methanogens, methanotrophs, microbial communities, mineral fertilizers, organic fertilizers, paddies, soil, sustainable agriculture
Methane emissions are affected by agricultural practices. Agriculture has increased in scale and intensity because of greater food, feed and energy demands. The application of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, particularly in paddy fields, has contributed to increased atmospheric methane emissions. Using organic fertilizers may improve crop yields and the methane sink potential within agricultural systems, which may be further improved when combined with beneficial microbes (i.e. biofertilizers) that improve the activity of methane oxidizing bacteria such as methanotrophs. Biofertilizers may be an effective tool for agriculture that is environmentally beneficial compared to conventional inorganic fertilizers. This review highlights and discusses the interplay between ammonia and methane oxidizing bacteria, the potential interactions of microbial communities with microbially-enriched organic amendments and the possible role of these biofertilizers in augmenting the methane sink potential of soils. It is suggested that biofertilizer applications should not only be investigated in terms of sustainable agriculture productivity and environmental management, but also in terms of their effects on methanogen and methanotroph populations.