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Quantification of X. laevis vitellogenin by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Luna, Leah G., Coady, Katherine
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016 v.124 pp. 296-302
Xenopus laevis, adults, blood plasma, endocrine system, females, fish, frogs, juveniles, liquid chromatography, males, mechanism of action, tandem mass spectrometry, toxicity testing, vitellogenin, wildlife
Over the last several decades, there has been an increase in public awareness and regulatory activity in regard to the presence of emerging contaminants in the environment that may have the potential to interact with the endocrine system of exposed wildlife. Alterations in vitellogenin (VTG), a high density yolk precursor protein, can indicate endocrine activity in oviparous species, including many fish and amphibians. While various methodologies and experiments have been performed to characterize baseline VTG concentrations among commonly studied fish species, fewer methodologies for accurately quantifying amphibian VTG are available. Since there is relatively little information available on background VTG levels in male and female frogs, the present investigation set out to quantify baseline levels of VTG in juvenile as well as adult male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) using a newly developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. This new methodology for quantifying VTG in X. laevis frog blood plasma can be applied in mechanistic and toxicity studies with X. laevis to better characterize potential endocrine modes of action.