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Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Lemna minor by exogenous salicylic acid

Lu, Qianqian, Zhang, Tingting, Zhang, Wei, Su, Chunlei, Yang, Yaru, Hu, Dan, Xu, Qinsong
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018 v.147 pp. 500-508
Lemna minor, absorption, adverse effects, aquatic environment, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid, cadmium, cadmium chloride, calcium, catalase, cell viability, chlorophyll, fronds, glutathione, glutathione-disulfide reductase, heat shock proteins, iron, lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase, magnesium, malondialdehyde, minerals, molybdenum, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, pollutants, proline, salicylic acid, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl2, 10μM CdCl2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity. Chlorosis-associated symptoms, the reduction in chlorophyll content, and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species induced by Cd exposure were largely reversed by SA. SA significantly decreased the toxic effects of Cd on the activities of the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the fronds of L. minor. Furthermore, SA reversed the detrimental effects of Cd on total ascorbate, glutathione, the ascorbic acid/oxidized dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide ratios, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde concentration, lipoxygenase activity, and the accumulation of proline. SA induced the up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) and attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on cell viability. These results suggest that SA confers tolerance to Cd stress in L. minor through different mechanisms.