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Long-term manganese-toxicity-induced alterations of physiology and leaf protein profiles in two Citrus species differing in manganese-tolerance

Xiang You, Lin-Tong Yang, Yi-Ping Qi, Peng Guo, Ning-Wei Lai, Xin Ye, Qiang Li, Li-Song Chen
Journal of plant physiology 2017 v.218 pp. 249-257
Citrus maxima, Citrus sinensis, amino acid metabolism, cytoskeleton, energy, leaf protein, leaves, manganese, photorespiration, protein composition, pummelos, reactive oxygen species, roots, seedlings, signal transduction, stress response, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Manganese (Mn)-intolerant ‘Sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) and Mn-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) seedlings were irrigated for 17 weeks with 2 (control) or 600μM (Mn-toxicity or −excess) MnSO4. C. sinensis had higher Mn-tolerance than C. grandis, as indicated by the higher photosynthesis rates in Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves. Under Mn-toxicity, Mn levels were similar between C. sinensis and C. grandis roots, but lower in C. sinensis leaves than in C. grandis leaves. This might be responsible for C. sinensis Mn-tolerance. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we identified more differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in Mn-excess C. grandis than in Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves, which agrees with the higher Mn levels in Mn-excess C. grandis leaves. DAPs were mainly related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress response, and protein and amino acid metabolism. DAPs involved in the cytoskeleton and signal transduction were found only in Mn-excess C. grandis leaves. We isolated more photosynthesis-related proteins with decreased abundances in Mn-excess C. grandis leaves than in Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves, which might account for the larger decrease in photosynthesis rates in C. grandis leaves. The abundances of proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and photorespiration were increased in Mn-excess C. grandis leaves, while only proteins involved in ROS detoxification were increased in Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves. This agrees with the increased requirement for dissipating the excess absorbed light energy, which was higher in Mn-excess C. grandis leaves than Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves because Mn-toxicity inhibited photosynthesis to a greater degree in C. grandis leaves.