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Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant effects of fluralaner in zebrafish, Danio rerio

Jia, Zhong-Qiang, Liu, Di, Sheng, Cheng-Wang, Casida, John E., Wang, Chen, Song, Ping-Ping, Chen, Yu-Ming, Han, Zhao-Jun, Zhao, Chun-Qing
Environmental pollution 2017
Danio rerio, acute toxicity, antioxidant activity, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, catalase, gene expression, glutathione peroxidase, insecticidal properties, insecticides, lethal concentration 50, messenger RNA, metabolism, nontarget organisms, pests, superoxide dismutase, transcription (genetics)
Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline insecticide which shows high insecticidal activity against parasitic, sanitary and agricultural pests, but there is little information about the effect of fluralaner on non-target organisms. This study reports the acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant response of fluralaner in zebrafish. All LC50 values of fluralaner to zebrafish were higher than 10 mg L−1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. To study the bioconcentration and elimination, the zebrafish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of fluralaner (2.00 and 0.20 mg L−1) for 15 d and then held 6 d in clean water. The results showed medium BCF of fluralaner with values of 12.06 (48 h) and 21.34 (144 h) after exposure to 2.00 and 0.20 mg L−1 fluralaner, respectively. In the elimination process, a concentration of only 0.113 mg kg−1 was found in zebrafish on the 6th day after removal to clean water. After exposure in 2.00 mg L−1 fluralaner, the enzyme activities of SOD, CAT, and GST, GSH-PX, CarE and content of MDA were measured. Only CAT and CarE activities were significantly regulated and the others stayed at a stable level compared to the control group. Meanwhile, transcriptional expression of CYP1C2, CYP1D1, CYP11A were significantly down-regulated at 12 h exposed to 2.00 mg L−1 of fluralaner. Except CYP1D1, others CYPs were up-regulated at different time during exposure periods.Fluralaner and its formulated product (BRAVECTO®) are of low toxicity to zebrafish and are rapidly concentrated in zebrafish and eliminated after exposure in clean water. Antioxidant defense and metabolic systems were involved in the fluralaner-induced toxicity. Among them, the activities of CAT and CarE, and most mRNA expression level of CYPs showed fast response to the sub-lethal concentration of fluralaner, which could be used as a biomarker relevant to the toxicity.