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ABCB1 and ABCC1-like transporters in immune system cells from sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Echinus esculentus and oysters Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea gigas

Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando, Hégaret, Hélène, Lima-Santos, Leonardo, Queiroga, Fernando Ramos, da Silva, Patricia Mirella
Fish & shellfish immunology 2017 v.70 pp. 195-203
ABC transporters, Crassostrea gasar, Crassostrea gigas, Echinometra lucunter, Echinus, biomarkers, coasts, flow cytometry, fluorescence, hemocytes, oysters, phagocytes, phenotype, shellfish, toxicity, xenobiotics, Brazil, France
ABC transporters activity and expression have been associated with the multixenobiotic resistance phenotype (MXR). The activity of these proteins leads to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of several xenobiotics, thus reducing their toxicity. However, little attention has been given to the expression of ABC transporters in marine invertebrates and few studies have investigated their role in immune system cells of sea urchins and shellfish bivalves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity of the ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 in immune system cells of sea urchins (coelomocytes) and oysters (hemocytes) from different climatic regions (Brazil and France). Sea urchins and oysters were collected at Paraíba coast; Brazil (Echinometra lucunter and Crassostrea gasar) and Rade of Brest; France (Echinus esculentus and Crassostrea gigas). Coelomocytes and hemocytes were stained with the ABC transporter substrate calcein-AM and dye accumulation analyzed under flow cytometry. Reversin 205 (ABCB1 transporter blocker) and MK571 (ABCC1 transporter blocker) were used as pharmacological tools to investigate ABC transporter activity. A different pattern of calcein accumulation was observed in coelomocytes: phagocytes > colorless spherulocytes > vibrate cells > red spherulocytes. The treatment with MK571 increased calcein fluorescence levels in coelomocytes from both species. However, reversin 205 treatment was not able to increase calcein fluorescence in E. esculentus coelomocytes. These data suggest that ABCC1-like transporter activity is present in both sea urchin species, but ABCB1-like transporter activity might only be present in E. lucunter coelomocytes. The activity of ABCC1-like transporter was observed in all cell types from both bivalve species. However, reversin 205 only increased calcein accumulation in hyalinocytes of the oyster C. gasar, suggesting the absence of ABCB1-like transporter activity in all other cell types, including hyalinocytes from the oyster C. gigas. Additionally, our results showed that C. gigas exhibited higher activity of ABCC1-like transporter in all hemocyte types than C. gasar. The present work is the first to characterize ABCB1 and ABCC1-like transporter activity in the immune system cells of sea urchins E. lucunter and E. esculentus and oysters. Our findings encourage the performing studies regarding ABC transporters activity/expression in immune system cells form marine invertebrates under stress conditions and the possible use of ABC transporters as biomarkers.