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Exploration of biodegradation mechanisms of black carbon-bound nonylphenol in black carbon-amended sediment

Cheng, Guanghuan, Sun, Mingyang, Ge, Xinlei, Xu, Xinhua, Lin, Qi, Lou, Liping
Environmental pollution 2017 v.231 pp. 752-760
bioavailability, biodegradation, biofilm, bioremediation, carbon, confocal laser scanning microscopy, desorption, mass transfer, microorganisms, pollution, prediction, rice straw, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, sediments
The present study aimed to investigate biodegradation mechanisms of black carbon (BC)-bound contaminants in BC-amended sediment when BC was applied to control organic pollution. The single-point Tenax desorption technique was applied to track the species changes of nonylphenol (NP) during biodegradation process in the rice straw carbon (RC)-amended sediment. And the correlation between the biodegradation and desorption of NP was analyzed. Results showed that microorganisms firstly degraded the rapid-desorbing NP (6 h Tenax desorption) in RC-amended sediment. The biodegradation facilitated the desorption of slow-desorbing NP, which was subsequently degraded as well (192 h Tenax desorption). Notably, the final amount of NP degradation was greater than that of NP desorption, indicating that absorbed NP by RC amendment can be degraded by microorganisms. Finally, the residual NP amount in RC-amended sediment was decided by RC content and its physicochemical property. Moreover, the presence of the biofilm was observed by the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) so that microorganisms were able to overcome the mass transfer resistance and directly utilized the absorbed NP. Therefore, single-point Tenax desorption alone may not be an adequate basis for the prediction of the bioaccessibility of contaminants to microorganisms or bioremediation potential in BC-amended sediment.