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Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10-c12 CLA) treatment and caloric restriction differentially affect adipocyte cell turnover in obese and lean mice

Yeganeh, Azadeh, Zahradka, Peter, Taylor, Carla G.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2017 v.49 pp. 123-132
adipocytes, adipose tissue, animal disease models, anti-obesity agents, apoptosis, autophagy, blood glucose, body fat, caspase-3, conjugated linoleic acid, glycemic control, isomers, low calorie diet, mice, obesity, stem cells, weight loss
Caloric restriction (CR) is one of the most promising strategies for weight loss but is associated with loss of lean mass, whereas compounds such as trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10-c12 CLA) have been promoted as antiobesity agents. To compare the mechanisms of weight reduction by CR and t10-c12 CLA, body composition, glucose control, and characteristics of adipose tissue with respect to cell turnover (stem cells and preadipocytes, apoptosis and autophagy) and Tbx-1 localization were examined in obese db/db mice and lean C57BL/6J mice undergoing CR or fed CLA isomers (0.4% w/w c9-t11 or t10-c12) for 4 weeks. Our findings show that the t10-c12 CLA reduced whole-body fat mass by decreasing all fat depots (visceral, inguinal, brown/interscapular), while CR lowered both whole-body fat and lean mass in obese mice. t10-c12 CLA elevated blood glucose in both obese and lean mice, while glycemia was not altered by CR. The adipocyte stem cell population remained unchanged; however, t10-c12 CLA reduced and CR elevated the proportion of immature adipocytes in obese mice, suggesting differential effects on adipocyte maturation. t10-c12 CLA reduced apoptosis (activated caspase-3) in both obese and lean mice but did not alter autophagy (LC3II/LC3I). Nuclear Tbx-1, a marker of metabolically active beige adipocytes, was greater in the adipose of t10-c12 CLA-fed animals. Thus, weight loss achieved via t10-c12 CLA primarily involves fat loss and more cells with Tbx-1 localized to the nucleus, while CR operates through a mechanism that reduces both lean and fat mass and blocks adipocyte differentiation.