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Age-dependent antioxidant responses to the bioconcentration of microcystin-LR in the mysid crustacean, Neomysis awatschensis

Min, Byung-Hwa, Ravikumar, Yuvaraj, Lee, Do-Hee, Choi, Kwang Sik, Kim, Bo-Mi, Rhee, Jae-Sung
Environmental pollution 2017
Neomysis, adults, antioxidant activity, aquatic environment, arginine, bioaccumulation, catalase, dose response, ecosystems, enzyme activity, exposure duration, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, juveniles, malondialdehyde, microcystin-LR, phycotoxins, superoxide dismutase
Microcystins (MCs) are naturally occurring algal toxins in the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. In general, aquatic populations are structured by organisms of different ages, with varying degrees of biochemical and physiological responses. In this study, juvenile and adult marine mysids (Neomysis awatschensis) were exposed to MC-Leucine Arginine (MC-LR) (0.1, 1, and 10 μg L−1) for 7 days, and the bioconcentration dynamics and responses of antioxidant defense system were measured during the exposure and additional depuration periods (7 days). MC-LR bioconcentrated in a dose-dependent manner, from a threshold concentration of 1 μg L−1 in both stages, and the levels reduced gradually during the depuration phase. Bioconcentration patterns of MC-LR were highly age-specific, as juvenile mysids showed peaks during the exposure period, whereas adults exhibited a peak on the first day of depuration. After exposure to 10 μg L−1 concentration, elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were observed during the late (days 5 and 7) exposure and early (days 1 and 3) depuration periods in juvenile mysids, while adult mysids showed a peak on day 7 of the exposure period. Age-specific responses were also observed in the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). Juvenile mysids showed a significant elevation in all enzymatic activities during the exposure and/or depuration phase upon exposure to 10 μg L−1 MC-LR, but only CAT and SOD enzymes showed significant changes during the exposure and/or depuration periods in adults. Overall, our results indicate the bioconcentration potential of MC-LR and its threshold in the marine mysid, in addition to age-specific MC-LR dynamics and subsequent biochemical responses.