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Low molecular weight fucoidan ameliorates hindlimb ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic rats

Wang, Zhiqiang, Liu, Tiantian, Chen, Xiaoping, You, Hongjie, Zhang, Quanbin, Xue, Jingyi, Zheng, Yuanyuan, Luo, Dali
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2018 v.210 pp. 434-442
Oriental traditional medicine, Saccharina japonica, animal disease models, animal injuries, blood flow, edema, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelium, feet, fucoidan, inflammation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1beta, ischemia, molecular weight, muscles, nitric oxide, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, patients, phosphorylation, platelet aggregation, rats, risk, sodium, therapeutics, vascular endothelial growth factors, vasodilation
Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), extracted from Laminaria japonica Areschoug, is a traditional Chinese medicine, commonly used to alleviate edema, particularly for feet with numbness and pain.Diabetic mellitus (DM) patients are at high risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Individuals with DM and PAD co-morbidity have a much higher risk of critical limb ischemia. LMWF showed several beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-thrombosis, and enhancing revascularization. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMWF might be beneficial to diabetes-induced PAD, and investigated the therapeutic potential of LMWF on diabetic PAD rats.Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were made PAD by injection of sodium laurate into femoral artery. LMWF (20, 40 or 80mg/kg/day) or cilostazol (100mg/kg/day) were given to diabetic PAD rats for 4 weeks, respectively. The effects of LMWF on foot ulceration and claudication, plantar blood flow, collateral vessel formation, endothelium morphology, gastrocnemius injury, platelet aggregation, vessel vasodilation, and the expressions of inflammation factors, VEGF, eNOS, and nitric oxide were measured.We found that LMWF markedly ameliorated foot ulceration and claudication, and improved the plantar perfusion by reversing hyperreactive platelet aggregation, ameliorating endothelium-dependent vasodilation and revascularization on diabetic PAD rats. In addition, upregulation of several inflammatory factors, such as ICAM-1 and IL-1β in the gastrocnemius muscles of ischemic hindlimb were suppressed by LMWF administration. And eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and NO production were significantly enhanced in LMWF-treated diabetic PAD rats.Taken together, our findings demonstrated that LMWF exhibits therapeutic effect on hindlimb ischemia in type 2 diabetic rats likely through ameliorating endothelium eNOS dysfunction and enhancing revascularization, thus, providing a potential supplementary non-invasive treatment for diabetes-induced PAD.