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Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in hard red spring wheat grown in the USA.
- Simsek, Senay, Ovando-Martinez, Maribel, Ozsisli, Bahri, Whitney, Kristin, Ohm, Jae-Bom
- Toxins 2013 v.5 pp. 2656
- Fusarium, Triticum aestivum, analysis of variance, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, disease occurrence, environmental factors, food safety, fungal diseases of plants, fungi, gas chromatography, geographical variation, hard red spring wheat, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, safety assessment, spring wheat, United States
- Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of "masked mycotoxin," named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification process of the plant. Both DON and D3G are known to be toxic. Due to the lack of data on D3G, it was not considered in the food safety assessment. Information on the DON and D3G content in wheat was needed to have a clear idea about the total DON content. In this study, DON content was measured using a gas chromatographic (GC), and DON and D3G contents were also determined by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for hard spring wheat samples harvested during 2011 and 2012 in USA. A high and positive correlation occurred between both methods (GC and LC-MS) for DON content. Analysis of variance indicated that growing region had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on variation of DON and D3G contents. Wheat DON had a significant and positive correlation with the D3G content for wheat samples harvested in 2011. Overall, results indicated that wheat DON could cause to increase D3G content and kernel damage, and environmental conditions during Fusarium infection might greatly affect wheat DON and D3G content.