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Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in hard red spring wheat inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

Ovando-Martinez, Maribel, Ozsisli, Bahri, Anderson, James, Whitney, Kristin, Ohm, Jae-Bom, Simsek, Senay
Toxins 2013 v.5 pp. 2522
Fusarium, Gibberella zeae, Triticum aestivum, analysis of variance, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, disease resistance, environmental factors, food safety, fungal diseases of plants, gas chromatography, genetic lines, geographical variation, hard red spring wheat, host-pathogen relationships, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, plant pathogenic fungi, regression analysis, spring wheat, Minnesota
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin which isproduced by plant pathogens such as Fusarium species. The formation of the "masked" mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. These two mycotoxins are important from the food safety point of view. The aim of this research was to analyze effect of wheat line, growing location, and their interaction on variation of DON and D3G content in hard spring wheat. Wheat samples that were inoculated with two Fusarium species were collected from two locations during three different years in Minnesota, USA. Wheat DON was analyzed by a gas chromatography (GC) and a liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Regression analysis showed a high and positive correlation between DON content measured with LC-MS and GC methods. The wheat DON and D3G content data could be fitted to a second order polynomial curve, meaning that increase of DON content did not accompany with increase of D3G content among wheat lines which had higher susceptibility to Fusarium. Wheat lines having less susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. Analysis of variance indicated that wheat line and location have greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than their interaction effect. The most important factor affecting wheat DON and D3G content was the growing location. In conclusion, environmental condition during wheat growth was most important factor influencing wheat DON and D3G contents in response to Fusarium infection.