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The influence of particle size and feedstock of biochar on the accumulation of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As by Brassica chinensis L.
- Zheng, Ruilun, Li, Cui, Sun, Guoxin, Xie, Zubin, Chen, Jie, Wu, Juying, Wang, Qinghai
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.28 pp. 22340-22352
- Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis, Chinese cabbage, arsenic, biochar, biomass, cadmium, feedstocks, heavy metals, lead, pH, particle size, phosphorus, rice straw, root systems, shoots, soil, zinc
- Biochar produced from rice straw (RC) and maize stalk (MC) was amended to the heavy metal-contaminated soil to investigate the effects of different biochar feedstock and particle size (fine, moderate, coarse) on the accumulation of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in Brassica chinensis L. (Chinese cabbage). The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in shoot were decreased by up to 57, 75, and 63%, respectively, after biochar addition (4%). Only MC decreased As concentration in B. chinensis L. shoots by up to 61%. Biochar treatments significantly decreased NH₄NO₃-extractable concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil by 47–62, 33–66, and 38–71%, respectively, yet increased that of As by up to 147%. Amendment of RC was more effective on immobilizing Cd, Zn, and Pb, but mobilizing soil As, than MC. A decrease in biochar particle size greatly contributed to the immobilization of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil and thereby the reduction of their accumulations in B. chinensis L. shoots, especially RC. Increases in soil pH and extractable P induced by biochar addition contributed to the sequestration of Cd, Zn, and Pb and the mobilization of As. Shoot biomass, root biomass, and root system of B. chinensis L. were enhanced with biochar amendments, especially RC. This study indicates that biochar addition could potentially decrease Cd, Zn, Pb, and As accumulations in B. chinensis L., and simultaneously increase its yield. A decrease in biochar particle size is favorable to improve the immobilization of heavy metals (except As). The reduction in Cd, Zn, Pb, and As levels in B. chinensis L. shoots by biochar amendment could be mainly attributed to a function of heavy metal mobility in soil, plant translocation factor, and root uptake.