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Levofloxacin is phytotoxic and modifies the protein profile of lupin seedlings

Orzoł, Aleksandra, Piotrowicz-Cieślak, AgnieszkaI.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.28 pp. 22226-22240
H-transporting ATP synthase, Lupinus, alcohol dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, aspartate transaminase, catalase, chitinase, drugs, enzyme activity, free radicals, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, heat stress, leaves, leghemoglobin, levofloxacin, lipoxygenase, median effective concentration, peroxidase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, physiological state, phytotoxicity, protein content, pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide), roots, seedlings, shoots
The toxicity of levofloxacin to yellow lupin plants was evaluated in this study. Recommended indexes of plant (roots and shoots) growth were determined and new indexes were proposed which better characterise the phytotoxicity of levofloxacin. These were, in particular, the activity of antioxidative enzymes, the content of free radicals, as well as the root protein content and the root protein profile. The results showed that levofloxacin considerably affected EC₅₀, measured as the activity of catalase in roots, and leaves (1.05 and 0.069 mM, respectively). The activity of peroxidase in the roots and the dry weight of seedlings were the least sensitive parameters (EC₅₀ was 1.8 and 1.76 mM, respectively). Units of toxicity clearly showed that the activity of catalase is a better measure of toxicity for low concentrations of the drug, and it is a better index of plant physiological state than the morphological parameters of seedlings. Moreover, levofloxacin changed the location of free radicals and the protein profile in plants. The changes in location of reactive oxygen species in roots were an important symptom of the drug toxicity to lupin seedlings. Our results have shown that the toxicity of levofloxacin was manifested mainly by changes in the protein profile. The content of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 14-3-3-like protein A, expansin-B3-like precursor, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, lipoxygenase, nucleotide-binding subunit of vacuolar ATPase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were found to decrease. On the other hand, plant exposure to levofloxacin resulted in an increase in the content of enolase, protein LlR18A, class III chitinase, ascorbate peroxidase, aspartate aminotransferase, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, leghemoglobin reductase-like 17 and heat shock cognate protein 80-like.