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Effects of exchanging carbohydrate or monounsaturated fat with saturated fat on inflammatory and thrombogenic responses in subjects with abdominal obesity: A randomized controlled trial

Teng, Kim-Tiu, Chang, Lin Faun, Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna, Nesaretnam, Kalanithi, Sanders, Tom A.B.
Clinical nutrition 2017 v.36 pp. 1250-1258
C-reactive protein, blood sampling, carbohydrates, cross-over studies, dietary fat, fasting, high density lipoprotein, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, milkshakes, muffins, nutritional intervention, obesity, randomized clinical trials, saturated fats
Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk.We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets.No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P < 0.05). Comparing the 3 meals, there were similar postprandial elevations in IL-6 and D-dimer and postprandial reductions in PAI-1, augmentation index and pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). CARB diet was found to reduce HDL3 by 7.8% and increase small dense HDL (sdHDL) by 8.6% compared with SFA diet (P < 0.05). SFA diet increased large HDL subfractions compared with both CARB and MUFA diets by 4.9% and 6.6% (P < 0.05), respectively.Overall, the evidence presented in this study suggests that the replacement of SFA with MUFA or refined carbohydrates may not improve inflammatory and thrombogenic markers in abdominally overweight individuals. Indeed increased refined carbohydrates consumption adversely impacts fasting HDL subfractions.This trial was registered under Identifier no. NCT01665482.