U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Use of ethanol extract of Mycobacterium bovis for detection of specific antibodies in sera of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) with bovine tuberculosis

Ashutosh Wadhwa, Rachel E Johnson, Colin G Mackintosh, J Frank T Griffin, W Ray Waters, John P Bannantine, Shigetoshi Eda
BMC veterinary research 2013 v.9 no.1 pp. 256
Cervus elaphus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, antibodies, antibody detection, blood serum, bovine tuberculosis, cross reaction, diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, diagnostic techniques, disease detection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ethanol, livestock, slaughter, surface antigens, wild animals, wildlife
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife species poses a threat to domestic livestock in many situations. Control programs for bTB in livestock depend on testing and slaughtering the positive animals; however, the currently available diagnostic tests often have poor specificity. In our previous study, we developed a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for another mycobacterial disease – Johne’s disease, using surface antigens of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) extracted by briefly agitating the bacilli in 80% ethanol solution. The ELISA test was named ethanol vortex ELISA (EVELISA). The objective of this study is to examine whether EVELISA technique could be used to specifically detect anti-Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) antibodies in the serum of M. bovis-infected farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). We tested a total of 45 red deer serum samples, divided in 3 groups – uninfected animals (n = 15), experimentally infected with M. bovis (n = 15) and experimentally infected with MAP (n = 15). RESULTS: The presence of anti-M. bovis antibodies was tested using an ethanol extract of M. bovis. Without absorption of anti-MAP cross reactive antibodies, it was found that 13 out of the 15 MAP-infected animals showed high antibody binding. Using heat killed MAP as an absorbent of cross reactive antibodies, anti-M. bovis antibodies were detected in 86.7% of M. bovis-infected animals with minor false positive results caused by MAP infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggest that EVELISA may form a basis for a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of bTB in farmed red deer.