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Allantoin contributes to the stress response in cadmium-treated Arabidopsis roots

Nourimand, Maryam, Todd, Christopher D.
Plant physiology and biochemistry 2017 v.119 pp. 103-109
Arabidopsis, abiotic stress, allantoin, cadmium, cadmium chloride, catalase, enzyme activity, genotype, leaves, messenger RNA, metabolism, metabolites, mutants, nitrogen, oxidative stress, protective effect, reactive oxygen species, roots, stress response, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, ureides
Ureides are nitrogen-rich compounds, derived from purine catabolism. A dual role for ureides, and for allantoin in particular, in both nitrogen recycling and the abiotic stress response has been recently identified. Previous work on the effect of allantoin on cadmium (Cd)-exposed Arabidopsis revealed that high concentration of allantoin in allantoinase-negative mutant (aln-3) leaves alleviates Cd toxicity via inducing antioxidant mechanisms in these plants. In the present study, we evaluate whether allantoin has a similar protective role in roots. Both wild type and aln-3 roots contain higher amounts of internal Cd compared to leaves. Likewise, aln-3 roots are more resistant to Cd, reflected in fresh and dry weight, and stimulated antioxidant enzyme activity, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), resulting in lower reactive oxygen species concentration. In contrast with wild-type leaves, high levels of Cd in Col-0 roots reduces transcript abundance of uricase, leading to a significant decline in allantoin level of treated roots at 1000 and 1500 μM CdCl2. This metabolite change is also accompanied by decreasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT). Additionally, contrary to wild-type leaves, root genotype has a significant effect on CAT activity under Cd treatment, suggesting the possible different sources of damage and oxidative stress response in these two tissues.