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Biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of PAHs from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in the rhizosphere: A mechanism study

Ni, Ni, Song, Yang, Shi, Renyong, Liu, Zongtang, Bian, Yongrong, Wang, Fang, Yang, Xinglun, Gu, Chenggang, Jiang, Xin
The Science of the total environment 2017 v.601-602 pp. 1015-1023
Arthrobacter, Daucus carota, Flavobacterium, adsorption, bacteria, bioaccumulation, bioavailability, biochar, carrots, corn, feedstocks, genes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrolysis, rhizosphere, soil, temperature
The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms on how biochar reduces bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tuberous vegetables. Corn straw-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 300°C (CB300) or bamboo-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C (BB700) was amended into PAH-contaminated soil planted with carrot (Daucus carota L.). After 150days, 2% CB300 or 2% BB700 amendments significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of PAHs in carrot root (p<0.05), especially for high-molecular-weight PAHs. In the non-rhizosphere, either CB300 or BB700 suppressed PAH dissipation and decreased the bioavailability via adsorption processes. Compared to the control, the total concentration of PAHs in the rhizosphere was higher in the 2% BB700 treatment but the bioavailable concentration was lower. This indicates that BB700 decreased the bioavailability of PAHs primarily via immobilization (adsorption processes). By contrast, the total and bioavailable PAH concentrations were both lower in the 2% CB300 treatment than those in the control. The abundance of bacteria such as Arthrobacter and Flavobacterium and the total number of genes playing important roles in microbial PAH degradation processes increased significantly (p<0.05), which were likely responsible for the rapid dissipation of PAHs in the 2% CB300 treatment in the rhizosphere. These results indicate that CB300 decreased the PAH bioavailability primarily via increasing degradation of PAHs by indigenous microorganisms. The two biochars both showed better effectiveness at reducing the bioavailability of high-molecular-weight PAHs than the low-molecular-weight PAHs in the rhizosphere. Therefore, the mechanisms on how biochar reduces the PAH uptake into carrot are dependent on the type of biochar (e.g., pyrolysis temperature and feedstock) and root presence.