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Disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by moojenactivase, a procoagulant snake venom metalloprotease

Sartim, Marco A., Cezarette, Gabriel N., Jacob-Ferreira, Anna L., Frantz, Fabiani G., Faccioli, Lucia H., Sampaio, Suely V.
International journal of biological macromolecules 2017 v.103 pp. 1077-1086
Bothrops, aspartate transaminase, coagulation, creatine, creatinine, disseminated intravascular coagulation, erythrocytes, fibrinogen, heart, hemolysis, hemorrhage, histopathology, interleukin-6, kidneys, lungs, metalloproteinases, mononuclear leukocytes, pathophysiology, prothrombin, snake venoms, thrombocytopenia, thromboplastin, thrombosis, toxicity, toxins, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, urea
Snake venom toxins that activate coagulation factors are key players in the process of venom-induced coagulopathy, and account for severe clinical manifestations. The present study applies a variety of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological approaches to broadly investigate the intravascular and systemic effects of moojenactivase (MooA), the first described PIIId subclass metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops sp. venom that activates coagulation factors. MooA induced consumption coagulopathy with high toxic potency, characterized by prolongation of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time, consumption of fibrinogen and the plasma coagulation factors X and II, and thrombocytopenia. MooA promoted leukocytosis and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, accompanied by tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This metalloprotease also caused intravascular hemolysis, elevated plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, and urea/creatinine, and induced morphopathological alterations in erythrocytes, heart, kidney, and lungs associated with thrombosis and hemorrhage. Diagnosis of MooA-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation represents an important approach to better understand the pathophysiology of Bothrops envenomation and develop novel therapeutic strategies targeting hemostatic disturbances.