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Disruption of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA associated with hybridization area of European Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus in Norway

Śmietanka, Beata, Burzyński, Artur
Marine biology 2017 v.164 no.11 pp. 209
Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus, females, haplotypes, hybridization, hybrids, males, masculinization, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial genome, models, sons, North Sea, Norway
Doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI) is best known in the blue mussel Mytilus. Under this model, two types of mitochondrial DNA exist: female type (F), transmitted from females to offspring of both genders, and male type (M), transmitted exclusively from males to sons. The mitogenomes are usually highly divergent, but an occasional replacement of a typical M genome by a particular F genome has been postulated to explain reduction of this divergence. Disruption of the DUI model has been reported in hybridization areas. Here, we present a new case of DUI disruption in a hybrid M. trossulus/M. edulis population from the North Sea (Norway). No M haplotypes derived from M. trossulus were identified in this population. Typical M haplotypes derived from M. edulis (ME) were rare. Two F-type haplogroups were found: one derived from M. edulis (FE) and the second derived from M. trossulus (FT). Many haplotypes from the FT group were recombinants, with the male CR sequence coming from the M. trossulus genome (FT1 haplogroup) in contrast to M. edulis CR as in the Baltic. FT1 haplotypes were abundant in the studied population, including homoplasmic females. However, males significantly more often carried these haplotypes; therefore, male heteroplasmy involved the original FE and recombinant FT, indicating that the FT genome undergoes masculinization. Structural similarity of FT1 CR with previously reported, masculinized Baltic haplotypes, which were derived from FE/ME recombination, provides further evidence that CR M–F recombination is a prerequisite for masculinization, also in the context of native M. trossulus mtDNA.