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In ovo vaccination using Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins in Montanide IMS adjuvant increases protective immunity against experimentally-induced necrotic enteritis

Lillehoj, Hyun Soon, Jang, Seung Ik, Panebra, Alfredo, Lillehoj, Erik Peter, Dupuis, Laurent, Arous, Juliette Ben, Lee, Seung Kyoo, Oh, Sung Taek
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2017 v.30 no.10 pp. 1478-1485
Clostridium perfringens, Eimeria maxima, adjuvants, antibodies, blood serum, body weight, chickens, digestive system, disease models, immune response, interleukin-8, lymphocytes, messenger RNA, mixed infection, necrotic enteritis, pathogenesis, profilins, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vaccination, vaccines
Objective The effects of vaccinating 18-day-old chicken embryos with the combination of recombinant Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) NetB proteins mixed in the Montanide IMS adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis (NE) were investigated using an Eimeria maxima (E. maxima)/C. perfringens co-infection NE disease model that we previously developed. Methods Eighteen-day-old broiler embryos were injected with 100 μL of phosphate-buffered saline, profilin, profilin plus necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB), profilin plus NetB/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 106), and profilin plus Net-B/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 101). After post-hatch birds were challenged with our NE experimental disease model, body weights, intestinal lesions, serum antibody levels to NetB, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were measured. Results Chickens in ovo vaccinated with recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS106 and recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS101 showed significantly increased body weight gains and reduced gut damages compared with the profilin-only group, respectively. Greater antibody response to NetB toxin were observed in the profilin plus NetB/IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB/IMS 101 groups compared with the other three vaccine/adjuvant groups. Finally, diminished levels of transcripts encoding for proinflammatory cytokines such as lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interleukin-8 were observed in the intestinal lymphocytes of chickens in ovo injected with profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 101 compared with profilin protein alone bird. Conclusion These results suggest that the Montanide IMS adjuvants potentiate host immunity to experimentally-induced avian NE when administered in ovo in conjunction with the profilin and NetB proteins, and may reduce disease pathology by attenuating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated in disease pathogenesis.