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Pathogenicity and Virulence of Soilborne Oomycetes on Phaseolus vulgaris

Rossman, D. R., Rojas, A., Jacobs, J. L., Mukankusi, C., Kelly, J. D., Chilvers, M. I.
Plant disease 2017 v.101 no.11 pp. 1851-1859
Phaseolus vulgaris, Pythium aphanidermatum, black beans, damping off, disease control, disease severity, dry beans, food crops, growth chambers, intraspecific variation, kidney beans, pathogens, root rot, seedlings, temperature, virulence
Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally important leguminous food crop. Yields can be reduced by high incidence of soilborne oomycetes that cause seedling disease. Breeders have attempted to develop Pythium root rot-resistant bean varieties; however, relationships between dry bean and most soilborne oomycete species remain uncharacterized. Oomycete species (n = 28), including Pythium spp. and Phytopythium spp., were tested in a growth chamber seedling assay at 20°C and an in vitro seed assay at 20°C and 26°C to evaluate their pathogenicity and virulence on ‘Red Hawk’ dark red kidney bean and ‘Zorro’ black bean. Root size or disease severity was significantly impacted by 14 oomycete species, though results varied by bean variety, temperature, and assay. Of these 14 pathogenic oomycete species, 11 species exhibited significant differences in DSI due to temperature on at least one bean variety. Pythium aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, P. ultimum, P. ultimum var. sporangiiferium, and P. ultimum var. ultimum were the most virulent species in both assays, causing seed rot and pre-emergence damping-off of dry bean. Oomycete species were clustered into three groups based on symptom development: seed rot pathogens, root rot pathogens, or nonpathogens. Intraspecific variability in virulence was observed for eight of the 14 pathogenic oomycete species. Improved understanding of Pythium and Phytopythium interactions with dry bean may enable breeders and pathologists to more effectively evaluate strategies for oomycete seedling disease management.