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Ultrafast-Charging and Long-Life Li-Ion Battery Anodes of TiO2-B and Anatase Dual-Phase Nanowires

Li, Kaikai, Li, Baohua, Wu, Junxiong, Kang, Feiyu, Kim, Jang-Kyo, Zhang, Tong-Yi
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2017 v.9 no.41 pp. 35917-35926
lithium batteries, energy, lithium, electrolytes, cathodes, diffusivity, titanium dioxide, durability, electrochemistry, nanowires, functional properties, cost effectiveness, nanoparticles, anodes, Raman spectroscopy
Ideal lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) should possess a high power density, be charged extremely fast (e.g., 100C), and have a long service life. To achieve them all, all battery components, including anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes should have excellent structural and functional characteristics. The present work reports ultrafast-charging and long-life LIB anodes made from TiO₂-B/anatase dual-phase nanowires. The dual-phase nanowires are fabricated with anatase TiO₂ nanoparticles through a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal process, which can be easily scaled up for mass production. The anodes exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with reversible capacities of ∼225, 172, and 140 mAh g–¹ at current rates of 1C, 10C, and 60C, respectively. They deliver exceptional capacity retention of not less than 126 and 93 mAh g–¹ after 1000 cycles at 60C and 100C, respectively, potentially worthwhile for high-power applications. These values are among the best when the high-rate capabilities are compared with the literature data for similar TiO₂-based anodes. The Ragone plot confirms both the exceptionally high energy and power densities of the devices prepared using the dual-phase nanowires. The electrochemical tests and operando Raman spectra present fast electrochemical kinetics for both Li⁺ and electron transports in the TiO₂ dual-phase nanowires than in anatase nanoparticles due to the excellent Li⁺ diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of nanowires.