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Metabolic responses to ethanol and butanol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
- Jiang, Yongguang, Xiao, Peng, Shao, Qing, Qin, Huan, Hu, Zhangli, Lei, Anping, Wang, Jiangxin
- Biotechnology for biofuels 2017 v.10 no.1 pp. 239
- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, biochemical pathways, biofuels, biosynthesis, butanol, clean energy, cytoskeletal proteins, engineering, ethanol, fuel production, gasoline, hosts, microalgae, models, peroxidase, physical properties, proteomics, solvents, toxicity, transporters
- BACKGROUND: Microalgae have been demonstrated to be among the most promising phototrophic species for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals. Ethanol and butanol are clean energy sources with good chemical and physical properties as alternatives to gasoline. However, biosynthesis of these two biofuels has not been achieved due to low tolerance of algal cells to ethanol or butanol. RESULTS: With an eye to circumventing these problems in the future and engineering the robust alcohol-producing microalgal hosts, we investigated the metabolic responses of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to ethanol and butanol. Using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ-LC–MS/MS technologies, we detected the levels of 3077 proteins; 827 and 730 of which were differentially regulated by ethanol and butanol, respectively, at three time points. In particular, 41 and 59 proteins were consistently regulated during at least two sampling times. Multiple metabolic processes were affected by ethanol or butanol, and various stress-related proteins, transporters, cytoskeletal proteins, and regulators were induced as the major protection mechanisms against toxicity of the organic solvents. The most highly upregulated butanol response protein was Cre.770 peroxidase. CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first comprehensive view of the metabolic mechanisms employed by C. reinhardtii to defend against ethanol or butanol toxicity. Moreover, the proteomic analysis provides a resource for investigating potential gene targets for engineering microalgae to achieve efficient biofuel production.