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Identification of α‐tocopherol as a bioactive component of Dicranopteris linearis with disrupting property against preformed biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus

Mawang, C.I., Lim, Y.Y., Ong, K.S., Muhamad, A., Lee, S.M.
Journal of applied microbiology 2017 v.123 no.5 pp. 1148-1159
Dicranopteris linearis, Staphylococcus aureus, alpha-tocopherol, antibacterial properties, bioactive compounds, biofilm, ethyl acetate, gentian violet, hexane, leaf extracts, leaves, methanol, methylene chloride, minimum inhibitory concentration
AIMS: The potential of Dicranopteris linearis leaves’ extract and its bioactive components were investigated for the first time for its disrupting ability against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The leaves of D. linearis were subjected to sonication‐assisted extraction using hexane (HEX), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol (MeOH). It was found that only the MeOH fraction exhibited antimicrobial activity using broth microdilution assay; while all four fractions do not exhibit biofilm inhibition activity against S. aureusATCC 6538P, S. aureusATCC 43300, S. aureusATCC 33591 and S. aureusATCC 29213 using crystal violet assay. Among the four fractions tested, only the HEX fraction showed biofilm disrupting ability, with 60–90% disruption activity at 5 mg ml⁻¹ against all four S. aureus strains tested. Bioassay‐guided purification of the active fraction has led to the isolation of α‐tocopherol. α‐Tocopherol does not affect the cells within the biofilms but instead affects the biofilm matrix in order to disrupt S. aureus biofilms. CONCLUSIONS: α‐Tocopherol was identified to be the bioactive component of D. linearis with disruption activity against S. aureus biofilm matrix. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The use of α‐tocopherol as a biofilm disruptive agent might potentially be useful to treat biofilm‐associated infections in the future.