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Emerging contaminants in Indian environmental matrices – A review
- Philip, Jeeva M., Aravind, Usha K., Aravindakumar, Charuvila T.
- Chemosphere 2018 v.190 pp. 307-326
- air, antibiotic resistance, drugs, flame retardants, genes, geographical distribution, monitoring, risk, screening, sediments, sludge, soil, surveys, toxicity, vertebrates, India
- The emergence of issues related to environment from ECs is a topic under serious discussions worldwide in recent years. Indian scenario is not an exception as it is tremendously growing in its rate of production and consumption of compounds belongs to ECs categories. However, a comprehensive documentation on the occurrence of ECs and consequent ARGs as well as their toxic effects on vertebrates on Indian context is still lacking. In the present study, an extensive literature survey was carried out to get an idea on the geographical distribution of ECs in various environmental matrices (water, air, soil, sediment and sludge) and biological samples by dividing the entire subcontinent into six zones based on climatic, geographical and cultural features. A comprehensive assessment of the toxicological effects of ECs and the consequent antibiotic resistant genes has been included. It is found that studies on the screening of ECs are scarce and concentrated in certain geological locations. A total of 166 individual compounds belonging to 36 categories have been reported so far. Pharmaceuticals and drugs occupy the major share in these compounds followed by PFASs, EDCs, PCPs, ASWs and flame retardants. This review throws light on the alarming situation in India where the highest ever reported values of concentrations of some of these compounds are from India. This necessitates a national level monitoring system for ECs in order to assess the magnitude of environmental risks posed by these compounds.